China power enterprise management 2017/12/15 9:43:45
Reform is the course of the change of civilization. The core of civilization is a dependency structure, which is often shown as an ordered competitive discovery mechanism, which tells us which traits can survive better in specific situations. The changes of the times, change the living cost, formed on a dependency structure of civilization, from low costs into the cost high, the birth of a new lower cost structure variation, with a cost advantage incentive channel, continues to attract gather more resources, then construct the dependency structure of higher civilization. The reform is to conform to the general trend, control the boundaries of two dependent structures, nurture and build incentive channels, and introduce resources from old dependent structures into new dependent structures.
Mirror image: from the contract contract to the county competition to boost the historic transformation of the agricultural country to the industrial country
Any reform can always be seen in the long history of the evolution of the mirror. In the past forty years, China has focused on the market allocation of labor elements, starting from the household contract responsibility system and taking county competition as an engine. Relying on the prosperity of manufacturing industry, it has promoted the development of the whole industrial system and realized a historic transformation from an agricultural country to an industrial country. In the form of household contract, the distribution standard of land elements has been changed, and the floodgates of labor factors flowing into the industrial field have been opened. Lead tax reform county competition, forming a "collective learning, than learn to help" based on the historical process of globalization, the industrial system to obtain full and rare experience, Chinese upgrade to the world's factory, Chinese people gradually became rich. However, the development of energy and resources factor market is lagging behind. Extensive exploitation and utilization result in serious ecological environmental problems, showing the contradiction between the people's imbalance in the needs and development of beautiful life.
Mission: power market reform is an important engine for the start of the electric power revolution
In the future for a long period, the optimal allocation of energy resources, will become an important force to boost the transformation of industrial civilization to ecological civilization, and power as an important force of human intelligence and bridging fusion power source source, will boost our country from the rich to the strong play an important role in the history of great leap. Each round of technological revolution is an alternative period for the motive force of social development, and also a window period for the replacement of a great power. Over the past three hundred years, the two wheel energy revolution driven technology revolution represented by steam engines and motors has realized the comprehensive replacement of human power sources, and has also molded the great power status of Britain and the United States. We are in the technological revolution driven by information change, and we are facing a comprehensive replacement for the source of human intelligence. Power is not only the carrier of energy, but also the carrier of information. The pan power network, which is fused by electric power and electronic, is an important platform for the deep integration of power and intelligence. The power intelligence revolution will show more and more important role in the long history of the future. The electricity market reform is an important engine to start the electric power intelligent revolution, undertaking the historical mission of embedding intelligent decision into industrial system and upgrading industrial civilization with green energy.
Azimuth: the overlapping of the three round reform tasks is the historical position of China's electricity reform
China's electricity market reform is a local battlefield of the global power market reform, and is a parallel revolution of many historical tasks. In the past, the whole world has undergone two rounds of electricity market reform, and is undergoing the third round of electricity market reform. The whole process of reform is the weakening process of natural monopoly attributes. The first round of electricity market reform is caused by technological progress, resulting in fierce competition on the power generation side, breaking the vertical monopoly relationship between power plants and transmission networks, and showing the trend of "separation of plant and network" in the upstream industry. The second round of the electricity market reform, technological progress and promote the continuous decline in the cost of information, the sale side competition intensified and the user side began to increase their own choices, part of the transaction cost less than the cost of organization, competitive link and natural monopoly sectors gradually separated, showing the feature of "separate transport network". The third is currently experiencing the power market reform, with renewable energy technology progress, some closer to the users of distributed energy, can no longer means of long distance transmission, direct implementation of homegrown at the user side, showing off grid operation "signs. Since 1985 China funded power, open the electricity market reform, the current plant grid separation task has been completed, separation of major task has not yet been completed, "separate transport network" task is advancing, which has faced challenges into large-scale renewable energy, will have to face tough parallel multi task, put forward the major challenge for the power market of our country reform. The current reform must fully recognize the greatest reality of this historical stage, and can better see and deal with the problems in the current reform.
Objective: to construct the market structure and market system of effective competition
The reform of the current power market set a clear goal of reform, and the establishment of an effective competition market structure and market system. The so-called market structure, is the law of development of respect for the natural monopoly property gradually weakened, according to the control system of middle and open ends, a clear delineation of the boundaries of competition, monopoly and competition will gradually step step phase separation; it is effective, is to have economic efficiency, also must have the social and ecological benefits. In order to deepen the research on the construction of regional power grid and the transmission and distribution system, the three liberalized, three strengthening and one independence will be promoted in an orderly way. The government is open, the market has to live, and the service must follow. From the reform of state owned enterprises to the deepening of price reform, the monopoly links in the power industry organizations have been clearly defined, and the boundaries of competition have been set up, and corresponding regulatory modes and regulatory capabilities have been matched. Especially pay attention to the information disclosure in social supervision role to credit mechanism as a pillar in the market, making the information has become the third hand resource allocation.
Path: the three type of leading practice has evolved a historical process of coevolution
All localities have actively carried out the first practice in combination with the practice, and have explored a variety of hereditary "variation". Leading the practice of the reform of the electricity market of the three class were formed in different historical position on comprehensive reform, clean energy consumption, the transition of the. These three typical practices have made beneficial explorations in the aspects of market structure, market participants and market order, excavating the cost depressions of reform, forming the incentive channel for reform, attracting and bringing together a large number of social resources. In the load zone, Guangdong was in difficult to fully liberalized electricity situation, using the difference return coefficient to establish a mechanism for boosting the clearing, releasing a huge market dividend, with uniform mechanism of continuous improvement, the scale of power supply and demand continue to enlarge, the market gradually entered the stage of benign development. In Yunnan renewable energy rich region, as the reform of the electricity market in Xiaogangcun, the total bilateral trade scale gradually liberalized, continue to reduce the cost of market clearing, especially with the effective allocation of information, brokered transactions and transactions can be upgraded to a continuous auction, to further enhance the efficiency of the transaction. In the central region of Chongqing, limited market capacity and structure, has not yet launched large-scale trading pilot, but according to their own situation to explore four nets, explore the establishment of regulatory standard, provides a unique experimental platform will increase in distribution areas, and create a fair balance bar "for electricity transmission and distribution reform". In conclusion, the experience of the three regions is being launched and learned from each other. Yunnan and Guangdong have formed a pair of evolutional partners of co evolution. Many practices in Chongqing and other parts of the world have been joining the coevolution history.
Prospects: the inlay market is an inevitable choice to cope with the challenges of incomplete information
The market is not a disorder of freedom. Incomplete information leads to incomplete contracts, generating residual control rights, and then forming a dependency structure, and externalizing it into a balance relationship. The evolution of the reform is to evolve from one kind of dependency structure to another, and to move from one balance to another. An old balance in the past is that the government should make unified decisions based on global information, rely on administrative means, adjust license plates, electricity and electricity prices, and then stabilize the static balance between interests of power generation enterprises, power grid enterprises and users. A new balance is the future: in the limited boundary conditions, power generation enterprises, the sale of electricity enterprises according to the market information of decentralized decision-making, provide low-cost high-quality services for users, to obtain competitive advantage, thus forming the main market order into a dynamic equilibrium and exit. The electricity market is a natural incomplete information market, through the skeleton structure, block structure of market system, to weaken the negative influence of imperfect information, through a stable skeleton structure, set the price of the flow of information to guide the market boundaries, market behavior, and form a virtuous mechanism of orderly competition. A series of Chinese reform explorations, such as power generation rights trading and price return coefficient, are all reflected in the mapping of this skeleton structure in the market. The stages of the reform determine the limitations of the reform, and also determine the basic forms and functions of these skeletons. Within the limited boundary, locality carries out reform exploration suitable for local characteristics, and constantly feedback and draw lessons from, and gradually expand the boundaries of practice, and finally converge to form a larger scale, higher level and deeper historical flood.